An-Nawāwī, may Allāh have mercy upon him, said in the Majmū’:

(Subsection) On the maźhabs of the ‘Ulamā’ with regard to Qirā’ah (Recitation) of the Junūb and the Hā’idh.

Our maźhab is that recitation of the Quran is harām (prohibited) for the junūb and the hā’idh, whether a small number of verses or  large, even if it is part of a verse. This is what the majority of the ‘ulāmā’ opined. Such was what al-Khattābī and others transmitted from the majority. Our aśhāb transmitted from ‘Umar Bin al-Khattab, ‘Ālī and Jābir, may Allah be pleased with them all, as well as al-Hasan, as-Zuhrī, an-Nakhā’ī, Qatādah, Ahmad and Ishāq. Da’ūd said:

Reading of all of the Qur’ān is permissible for the junub and hā’idh. This was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbās and Ibn al-Musayyib.

al-Qādhī Abū Tayyib, Ibn aś-Śabāhh and others said:

This is the preferred opinion of Ibn al-Munźir.

Mālik said:

The junūb may recite a small quantity of verses for ta’awwuzh (protection).

With regard to the hā’īd there are two narrations (1) She may read (2) She may not read.

Abū Hanīfah said:

The junub may read part of a verse but may not read a verse. There is a narration attributed to him just as our maźhab.

Those who considered it permissible categorically made hujjah with the hadīth of ‘Āisyah:

‎أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ يَذْكُرُ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى عَلَى كُلِّ أَحْيَانِهِ

That the Prophet, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him used to make źikr of Allāh most High at all times.

Narrated by Muslim. They said:

The Qur’ān is zikra and the aśl is absence of tahrīm (prohibition).

Our aśhāb made hujjah with the Hadīth of Ibnu ‘Umar [1] mentioned in the book but it is dha’īf as per the preceded discussion.

And from ‘abd Allāh Bin Salimah from ‘Alī, may Allah be pleased with him, who said

‎كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقْضِي حَاجَتَهُ فَيَقْرَأُ الْقُرْآنَ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ يَحْجُبُهُ ، وَرُبَّمَا قَالَ : يَحْجِزُهُ عَنْ الْقُرْآنِ شَيْءٌ لَيْسَ الْجَنَابَةَ

The Messenger of Allāh, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him had relived himself. He then recited Qur’ān and did not conceal it. Perhaps he said: Nothing restrained him from the Qur’ān, except janābah.

Narrated by Abū Daūd, at-Tirmiźī, an-Nasā’ī, Ibnu Majah al-Baihaqī and others. At-Tirmiźī said:

Hadīth Hasan Sahīh.

Others from the Huffāż al-Muhaqqiqīn said:

This is a dha’īf hadīth.

It is narrated by asy-Syāfi’ī in Sunan Harmalah. He then said:

If it is thābit (established), then in it is a proof of the impermissibility of Qirā’ah to the one in janābah.

Al-Baihaqī said:

Asy-Syāfi’ī narrated it in the Book : Jimā’ (Sexual Intercourse) of the Tuhūr (those in legal purity). He said: Even if the People of Hadīth is not for it being thābit (established).

Al-Baihaqī said:

Indeed, the tawaqquf (abstention) of asy-Syāfi’ī with regard to it’s thubūt is because it pivots upon ‘abd Allāh Bin Salimah. He was advanced in age and was considered munkar pertaining to his hadīths. His intellect is to a certain extend faulted (nakarah). And he in fact narrated this Hadīth when he is advanced in age.

Syu’bah mentioned it and then al-Baihaqī narrated it from some of the Imāms who made tahqīq (endorsed) of what he said.

al-Baihaqī then said:

And what is narrated from ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, is śahīh in which he disliked qirā’ah for the junub.

He then narrated with it’s chain from him. It is narrated from ‘Ālī

‎لَا يَقْرَأُ الْجُنُبُ الْقُرْآنَ وَلَا حَرْفًا وَاحِدًا
A junub shall not recite the Qur’an, not even a single hurf.

al-Baihaqī narrated from ‘abd Allāh Bin Mālik al-Ghāfiqī that he heard the Prophet, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him said:

{ إذَا تَوَضَّأْتُ وَأَنَا جُنُبٌ أَكَلْتُ وَشَرِبْتُ وَلَا أُصَلِّي وَلَا أَقْرَأُ حَتَّى أَغْتَسِلَ }
When I made wudhū’, while I am in junub, I eat and I drink and I neither pray not recite until I bathe.

It’s chain is dha’īf as well. Our aśhāb made hujjah also with the story of ‘abd Allāh bin Rawāhah, may Allah be pleased with him which is well known.

” أَنَّ امْرَأَتَهُ رَأَتْهُ يُوَاقِعُ جَارِيَةً لَهُ ، فَذَهَبَتْ فَأَخَذَتْ سِكِّينًا وَجَاءَتْ تُرِيدُ قَتْلَهُ ، فَأَنْكَرَ أَنَّهُ وَاقَعَ الْجَارِيَةَ وَقَالَ ” { أَلَيْسَ قَدْ نَهَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الْجُنُبَ أَنْ يَقْرَأَ الْقُرْآنَ ؟ قَالَتْ : بَلَى فَأَنْشَدَهَا الْأَبْيَاتَ الْمَشْهُورَةَ فَتَوَهَّمَتْهَا قُرْآنًا فَكَفَّتْ عَنْهُ ، فَأَخْبَرَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِذَلِكَ فَضَحِكَ وَلَمْ يُنْكِرْ عَلَيْهِ } “

That his wife saw him having sexual intercourse with his jāriyah. She went and took a knife and came to kill him. He denied that he had sexual intercourse with the jāriyah and said “{Didn’t the Messenger of Allah, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him prohibited the junub to recite the Quran? }” She said : Indeed He thus recited to her well known abyāt (lines of poetry). She took it as Qur’an and turned away from him. He then informed the Messenger of Allah, Salutstions of Allah and His Peace upon him about it and he laughed and did not disapproved of it}”

The proof pertaining to it is from two angles: (The first) That the Prophet, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him, did not disapproved of his sayings: The Prophet,Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him forbid Quran. (The second) That this is well known to them, known by their men and women. However, the chain of this story dha’īf and munqati’ (disconnected).

Our aśhab responded to the Hujjah of Daūd with the Hadīth of ‘Ā’isyah in that what is meant by źikr is other than the Qur’an for this is understood in consideration that it is not restricted (itlāq). As for the remaining maźhabs, they acknowledged the prohibition in general, they then called for takhśīs (exceptions) but with no basis for them. If they were to say: We  considered it permissible for the hā’īdh out of fear of forgetting (nisyān), we say: the objective is met by her tafakkūr (reflection) in her heart.

Allah knows best.

[1] Ibnu ‘Umar may Allah be pleased with them both narrated that the Prophet Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him said:

‎لَا يَقْرَأُ الْجُنُبُ وَلَا الْحَائِضُ شَيْئًا مِنْ الْقُرْآنِ
The junub and the hā’idh shall not recite anything from the Qur’ān

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