Imām an-Nawāwī, may Allāh have mercy upon him, in the Majmū’, commentary to the Muhaźźab said:

With regard to the maźhabs of the ‘ulamā’ pertaining to the establishment of qunūt during śubh prayers.

(1) our maźhab is that the qunūt is mustahab during śubh prayers whether or not during the condition of nāzilah (severe calamity or affliction). This is the opinion of the majority, if not many of the Salaf and those after them. Amongst those of this opinion is Abu Bakr as-Śiddīq, ‘Umar bin al-Khattāb, ‘Uthmān, ‘Ālī, Ibnu ‘Abbās and al-Barrā’ bin ‘Āzib may Allah be pleased with them, as narrated by al-Bahaqī with sound chains. This is the opinion amongst the Tābi’īn and men after them. This is the maźhab of Ibnu Abī Lailī, al-Hasan Ibn Śālih, Mālik and Daūd.

(2) ‘Abdullah Ibnu Mas’ūd and his aśhab, Abu Hanīfah and his aśhab, Sufyan ath-Thawrī, and Ahmad are of the opinion that there is no qunūt during śubh prayers. Ahmad said: except the Imām. He shall make the qunūt when he dispatches the armies. Ishāq said: he shall make the qunūt due to nāzilāh in particular.

They made hujjah with

(i) The Hadīth of Anas, may Allah be pleased with him {that the Prophet, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace be upon him, made qunūt for a month after performing rukū’, invoking God against tribes of Arabs and then he left it.} narrated by al-Bukhārī and Muslim.

(ii) And in the Śahīhs of al-Bukhārī and Muslim, from Abī Hurairah, may Allāh be pleased with him, {that the Prophet, salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him, made qunūt after rukū’ in his prayer for a month supplicating for so and so, and then he left the supplications for them.

(iii) And from Sa’d Bin Tāriq who said: { I said to my father: Oh my father, you had indeed prayed behind the Messenger of Allāh, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him, Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthmān and ‘Alī and they made qunūt during fajr? Oh my dear child, it is a hadath (innovation).} narrated by an-Nasāi and at-Tirmidzī and he said the hadīth is hasan śahīh.

(iv) From Ibnu Mas’ūd, may Allāh be pleased with him who said: {The Prophet did not make qunūt with regard to anything in his prayer.}

(v) From Abī Makhlad who said ” I prayed with Ibnu ‘Umar, may Allāh Most High be pleased with them both, the prayer of śubh and he did not make qunūt. So I said to him: I did not see you make qunūt. He then said: I did not remember (having hifzh) it from any of our aśhab.”

(vi) From Ibnu ‘Abbās, may Allah be pleased with them both “The qunūt during śubuh is a bid’ah (innovation).”

(vii) From Ummi Salamah {From the Prophet Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him, that he prohibited qunūt in śubh}

Our aśhāb made hujjah with

(viii) the Hadīth of Anas, may Allāh be pleased with him, {that the Prophet, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him, made qunūt for a month invoking against them and then left it. As for śubh, he continued to make qunūt until he left the world} . The hadīth is śahīh narrated by a group from the huffāzh and they considered it śahīh. Amongst those who stipulated that it is śahīh is al-Hāfizh Abū ‘Abdillah Muhammad Bin ‘Alī al-Balkhī, al-Hākim Abū ‘Abdillah in several places of his books and al-Baihaqī. Ad-Dāraqutni narrated it from several transmissions which are of sound chains.

(ix) And from al-‘Awwām Bin Hamzah who said “I asked Abā ‘Uthmān about the qunūt in śubh. He said: After rukū’. I said: From who? He said: From: Abī Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthmān, may Allāh Most High be pleased with them.” narrated by al-Baihaqī and he said: this chain is hasan. And it is narrated by al-Baihaqī from ‘Umar as well from several transmissions.

(x) From ‘Abdillah bin Mu’qil at-Tābi’ī who said ” ‘Alī, may Allāh be pleased with him made qunūt during Fajr.” Narrated by al-Baihaqī and he said: This from ‘Alī is śahīh masyhūr.

(xi) From al-Barrā’, may Allāh Most High be pleased with him, {that the Prophet of Allāh, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace be upon him, used to make qunūt during śubh and maghrib}, narrated by Muslim. Abū Daud narrated it without mentioning in his narration “maghrib”. There is no harm with regard to the leaving of people from making qunūt during the prayer of maghrib because it is not wājib and the ijmā’ (consensus) had established it’s naskh (abrogation).

As for the response to the Hadīth of Anas (i) and the Hadīth of Abī Hurairah (ii), may Allāh be pleased with them both with regard to the saying: then he left it, what is intended is the leaving of invocation against those kuffār and the imprecation of them only. He did not leave the entire qunūt or he left the qunūt in other than śubh. This ta’wīl (interpretation) is a particularization. This is because the Hadīth of Anas (viii) in his saying ” he continued to make qunūt during śubh until he departed from the world.” is śahīh (sound) śarīh (explicit). It is thus wājib to gather between the two hadīths. This is the particularization which we refer to which is due to the gathering between hadīths. al-Baihaqī had previously narrated with its chain from ‘Abd ar-Rahmān bin Mahdī al-Imām that he said : ” He indeed left the imprecation”. The narration of Abī Hurairah explicated this ta’wīl by his mentioning “he then left the supplications for them”.

The response to the Hadīth of Sa’d Bin Tāriq is that the narrations with which the qunūt is established is a ziyādah al-‘ilm (heightening of knowledge) and that they are akthar (more in numbers). It is thus wājib to give precedence to them.

And against the Hadīth of Ibnū Mas’ūd is that it is dha’īf jiddan (very weak). This is because it is from a narration of Muhammad Bin Jābir as-Sakhmī and he is shadīd adh-Dha’f who is matruk (rejected). Furthermore, it is a nafyi (denial) while the Hadīth of Anas is an ithbāt. Hence, it is given priority due to ziyādah al-‘ilm.

And against the Hadīth of Ibnu ‘Umar (v) that he did not remember it (having hifzh), or forgotten it. Then, Anas, al-Barrā’ bin ‘Āzib and others have certainly remembered it. So those who remembered it is given precedence.

And against the Hadīth of Ibnu ‘Abbas (vi), then it is dha’īf jiddan (extremely weak). Al-Baihaqī had narrated it from a narration of Abū Laila al-Kūfī and he said: This is not śahīh and Abū Laila is matruk. We had previously narrated from Ibnu ‘Abbās that he “made qunūt during śubh”.

And against the Hadīth of Ummi Salamah, it is dha’īf. This is because it is from a narration of Muhammad Bin Ya’la from ‘Anbasah Bin ‘Abd ar-Rahman from ‘Abdullah Bin Nāfi’ from his father, from Umm Salamah. Ad-Daraqutni said: These three are dhu’afā’ (weak narrators). It is not proven (śahīh) that Nāfi’ listened from Umm Salamah.

Allāh knows best.

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