Asy-Syirāzī, may Allāh have mercy upon him, said:

It is mustaĥab to fast on the day of ‘Āsyūrā’ due to the ħadīth of Abū Qatādah. It is mustaĥab to fast on the day of Tāsū’ā’ due to the narration of Ibnu ‘Abbās, may Allah be pleased with them both who said: The Messenger of Allāh, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him said {Indeed if I were to remain alive on the coming one, I will surely fast on the ninth day}

Commentary

An-Nawāwī, may Allāh have mercy upon him, in the commentary of the above said:

The Ĥadīth of Abū Qatādah has previously been explained. The wording of Muslim consist of {The Prophet of Allah, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him was asked about fasting on the day of ‘Āsyūrā’. He replied: It is an expiation for the year that passed.} As for the Ĥadīth of Ibnu ‘Abbās, it is narrated by Muslim with the wording above. In a narration of Muslim, there is an addition {The coming year did not come until the Prophet of Allāh, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace be upon him, passed on.}

‘Āsyūrā’ and Tāsū’ā’ are two mamdūd nouns (i.e with a hamzah at the end). This is well known in the books of Lughah (Arabic Language). It is transmitted from Abū ‘Amr asy-Syaibānī of the maqśur (alif at the end) form of both.

Our aśĥāb said: ‘Āsyūrā’ is the tenth day of Muĥarram, while Tāsū’ā’ is it’s ninth day. This is our maźhab and the opinion of the jumhūr of the ‘ūlamā’. Ibnu ‘Abbās said: ‘Āsyūrā’ is the ninth day of Muĥarram. This is established in the śaĥīĥ of Muslim. It is explained that this is taken from the coming of camels to the water, for the arabs name the fifth day upon arrival at the water rib’a (sharing the root verb with the number 4) and as such they named the remainder of the days utilizing this ascription. Thus, the ninth day according to this reference is the ‘Ishra (sharing the root verb with the number 10). The śaĥīĥ is what is said by the jumhūr which is that the ‘Āsyūrā’ is the 10th day. This is the dzhāhir (evident view) from the ĥadīths and is in conformity with the iţlāq (unconditional) nature of the ĥadīths. This is also ma’rūf (well known) amongst the ahlul lughah (‘Arab Lexicologists). As for the taqdīr (hypothesis) that it is related to the coming of camels to water, it is ba’īd (far from being correct). There is also a counter argument in the śaĥīĥ of Muslim, narrated from Ibnu ‘Abbās as he said: { that the Prophet of Allāh, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him fasted on the day of ‘Āsyūrā’. They then mentioned that the Jews and Christians fast on this day as well. He, Salutations of Allah and His Peace be upon him replied: in the coming year he will surely fast on the ninth day}. This is a taśrīĥ (affirmation) that the fast of the Prophet was not on the ninth day and it is a ta’yyun (specification) that it is the tenth day. Due to this ĥadīth, our aśĥāb and the other scholars considered it mustaĥab to fast on ‘Āsyūrā’ and Tāsū’ā’.

The ‘ulamā’ from amongst our aśĥāb and others mention several wajhs with regard to the ĥikmah for the mustaĥab of fasting on the day of Tāsū’ā’. (1) that the purpose is to differ from the Jews in their limiting themselves to fasting on the tenth day only. This is transmitted from Ibnu ‘Abbās and in a ĥadīth narrated by Imām Aĥmad Bin Ĥanbal from Ibnu ‘Abbās who said: The Prophet of Allah, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him said: {Fast on the day of ‘Āsyūrā’ and differ from the Jews. So fast a day before and a day after. (2) that the purpose is to connect a fast to the day of ‘Āsyūrah as how he prohibited fasting on the day of Jum’ah on its own. The two is mentioned by al-Khattābī and others. (3) as an iĥtiyāţ (precautionary measure) in fasting on the tenth day, out of fear related to shortcomings in determining the new moon. There may be occurrence of a mistake that the enumerated ninth day is in fact the tenth.

(Subsection) Our aśĥāb differed whether the fast of ‘Āsyūrā was initially wājib in the early phase of Islam, and then it is abrogated or it was non-wājib throughout. There are two masyhūr wajhs, attributed to our aśĥāb, and they are two iĥtimāls (possibilities). Asy-Syāfi’ī mentioned them. The more śaĥīĥ of the two views, is the dzāhīr view of the maźhab of asy-Syāfi’ī and is the view of the majority of our aśĥāb. This is also the dzāhir (apparent) from the naś of asy-Syāfi’ī, in fact his kalām (saying) is śarīĥ (clear) that it was never wājib. The second view is that it was wājib and this is the maźhab of Abū Hanīfah and there is ijmā’ amongst the Muslims that it is no longer wājib today, rather it is sunnah. As for the dalīl of those who said it was wājib, there are many śaĥīĥ ĥadīths. Amongst them are { that the Prophet, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him, delegated a man on the day of ‘Āsyūrā’ to his people to enjoin them to fast on that day and those amongst them who had eaten to fast for the rest of the day} as narrated by al-Bukhārī and Muslim from a narration of Salamah Bin al-Akwa’. Al-Bukhārī and Muslim narrated it in their Śaĥīĥs in meaning from a narration of ar-Rubayyi’ Binti Mu’awwiź. And from ‘Ā’isyah, may Allāh be pleased with her, {The Prophet of Allāh, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon Him, enjoined the fast of the day of ‘Āsyūrā’ before Ramadhān became fardh (obligatory). When the fast of Ramadhān became fardh, those who wish fasted, while those who wish made ifţār (did not fast) as narrated by al-Bukhārī and Muslim through a ţuruq (transmission). And from Ibnu ‘Umar, {that the Prophet of Allāh, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him, and the Muslims fasted on the day of ‘Āsyūrā’, before Ramadhān became fardh. When Ramadhān became fardh, the Prophet of Allāh, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon Him, said: those who wish may fast, and those who wish may leave it} narrated by Muslim. And from Ibnu Mas’ūd with regard to the day of ‘Āsyūrā’ who said: { Indeed, on a day the Prophet, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him, fasted it. Ramadhān was then revealed. When Ramadhān was revealed, he left it. } narrated by Muslim. From Jābir Bin Samrah who said: The Prophet, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him, {enjoined us to fast ‘Āsyūrā’, encouraged us to do so, and was particular about it. When Ramadhān was made fardh, he did not enjoin it, did not encourage us and was not particular about it} narrated by Muslim. From Abū Musā al-‘Asy’arī, and from Ibnu ‘Abbās {that the Prophet of Allāh Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him, enjoined of its fasting}. Both is narrated by al-Bukhārī and Muslim. The aśĥāb of Abū Hanīfah said: The enjoinment is attributed as wājib. The saying of the Prophet of Allāh, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him, {Those who wish may fast, and those who wish may make ifţār.} is a dalīl showing that he allow them to choose and that it is sunnah on that day. If it was not wājib before that, then allowing them to choose will not be applicable. Our aśĥāb made hujjah that it was not wājib, rather it was sunnah with several śaĥīĥ hadīths. Amongst them is the ĥadīth of Mu’āwiyah Bin Abū Sufyan {that he, on the day of ‘Āsyūrā’ said: and he is on the minbar, I heard the Prophet of Allāh, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him said: Indeed, today is the day of ‘Āsyūrā’, it’s fasting was lam maktūb (not obligatory) for you. For those who wish, they may fast and for those who wish they may make ifţār,narrated by al-Bukhārī and Muslim. Al-Baihaqī said that his saying {it’s fasting was lam maktūb for you}is a dalīl that it was at no time wājib. It is because “Lam” here is due to the negation of the past. And from Ibnu ‘Umar, may Allāh have mercy upon them both, from the Prophet of Allāh, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him, who said { The day of ‘Āsyūrā’ is the day in which the the people of jahiliyyah fasts, so those amongst you who likes to fast, then he shall fast, and those who dislikes it shall leave it } narrated by Muslim. And from ‘Ā’isyah who said { The day of ‘Āsyūrā’ is the day in which the Quraisy fasted during the time of Jahiliyyah, and when Islam came, the Prophet of Allāh, Salutations of Allāh and His Peace upon him said: those who are wish may fast and those who wish may leave it.} narrated by Muslim. As for the response to the ĥadīths, it is that they are interpreted to mean the ta’akkud (affirmation) of the istiĥbāb (esteeming as good), gathering between the various ĥadīths. And his saying ” when Ramadhān was fardh, it was left” i.e the ta’akkud of the istiĥbāb was left. This is as per his saying: {Those who wish may fast, and those who wish may leave it.}

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