The author ash-Shirāzī, may Allah Most High have mercy upon him said:

It is mustahab for other than the hāj (pilgrim) to fast on the day of ‘Arafah due to what is narrated by Abū Qatadah who said: The Messenger of Allah, Salutations of Allah and His Peace be upon him, said { The fast of ‘Āshūrā’ is a kaffārah (expiation) for a year while the fast on the day of ‘Arafah is a kaffārah for two years, the year before it that has elapsed, and the year after, which is approaching }. It is not mustahab for the pilgrim due to what is narrated by Ummu Fadhl Bint al-Hārith { that the people around her differed on the day of ‘Arafah with regard to the Messenger, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him, and some of them said “He is fasting.” while some of them said “He is not fasting.” So she sent to him a cup of milk while he is performing wuqūf upon his camel and he drank it.”} And because the rewards of du’ā on this day is magnified while fasting weakens him from doing so. Therefore fitr (breaking of fast) is afdhal.

Commentary

An-Nawāwī may Allah have mercy upon him said: The hadīth of Abū Qatadah is narrated by Muslim by meaning. He said: ” From Abū Qatadah { that the Messenger, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him, was asked with regard to fasting on the day of ‘Arafah, then he said “It expiates the year that has passed and the year that remains.” The hadīth of Ummu Fadhl is narrated by al-Bukhārī and Muslim from the narrations of Ummu Fadhl, and they narrated as well a similar narration from her sister Maimūna, the mother of the believers. Her name is Umm Fadhl Lubābah al-Kubrā and she is the mother of Ibnu Abbās and his brothers, and they are six excellent individuals. She has a sister who is said to be attributed with “Lubābah aś-Śughrā”, and she is the mother of Khalid bin al-Walīd. They are ten sisters while Maymūnah Bint al-Hārith, the mother of the believers is one of them. Ibnu Sa’d and others said that Umm Fadhl is the first woman that became Muslim after Khadījah, may Allah be pleased with the both of them.

(As for the ruling of the mas’alah) ash-Shafi’ī and the aśhāb said the fasting on the day of ‘Arafah for other than those who are at ‘Arafah is mustahab. As for the pilgrim who is present at ‘Arafah, then ash-Shāfi’ī in the Mukhtaśar and the aśhāb said his fitr (breaking of fast) is mustahab due to the hadīth of Umm al-Fadhl. A group from our aśhāb said, “his fast is markūh.” Amongst those who elucidated on it being makrūh is ad-Dārimī, al-Bandanījī, al-Mahāmilī in the Majmū’, the author in the Tanbīh and others. Ar-Rāfi’ī cited it’s being makrūh from many of the aśhāb. The jumhūr did not mention that it is makrūh. Rather, they said that his fitr is mustahab as mentioned by ash-Shāfi’ī.

As for the saying of the author and Imam al-Haramayn: “The fast is not mustahab for the pilgrim” is an ‘ibārah (expression) that is deficient. This is because it does not capture the stipulation that the pilgrim’s fitr is mustahab as mentioned by ash-Shafi’ī and the aśhāb.

Those who said with regard to it being makrūh made hujjah with the hadīth of Abū Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him, {prohibited the fast on the day of ‘Arafah at ‘Arafah} narrated by Abū Daūd and an-Nasā’ī with a chain that has a majhul (unknown person) in it and from Abū Najīh who said {Ibnu ‘Umar was asked with regard to fasting in the day of ‘Arafah in which he said: I made hajj with the Messenger of Allah, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him, he did not carry out the fast, and with Abū Bakr, he did not carry out the fast , and with ‘Umar, he did not carry out the fast, and with ‘Uthmān, he did not carry out the fast. Therefore, I do not carry out this fast, neither do I enjoin nor prohibit it} narrated by at-Tirmiźi. He said: This is a hasan hadīth. There is no proof in these two hadīths for those who said about the stipulation of makrūh because the first hadīth is dha’īf (weak) while there is no prohibition in the second. In fact, it shows that doing so is contrary to the afdhāl as per the opinion of ash-Shāfi’ī and the jumhūrs.

(Section) We mentioned that fitr on the day of ‘Arafah is mustahab for the pilgrim in ‘Arafah. This is how ash-Shafi’ī and the jumhūr have stipulated it. Al-Mutawallī said: if a person is amongst those whom fasting does not weaken him from making du’ā or the ‘amal of hajj, then fasting is awlā (more appropriate) for him. Otherwise, fitr is awlā. Ar-Rūyāni said in the Hilyah,:

If he is strong and it is during winter, while fasting does not weaken him from making du’ā, then fasting is afdhal for him. He said: This is the opinion of ‘Āisyah, ‘Athā’, Abū Hanīfah and a group of our aśhāb.

Ar-Rūyānī said in the Ma’rifah as-Sunān wa Āthar: ash-Shāfi’ī said in the Qadīm: If a man knows that fasting at ‘Arafah does not weaken him, and then he fasts. This is hasan and al-Khattabi is in favour of this view. The maźhab is the stipulation that fitr is mustahab without restriction. This is the opinion of the jumhūr of our aśhāb and they elucidated that it is without distinction.

(Section) Pertaining the maźhabs of the ‘ulamā’ with regard to the fast of ‘Arafah in ‘Arafah. We mentioned that our maźhab is the stipulation of mustahab for its fitr. Ibnu ‘Umar narrated it from the Messenger of Allah, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him, Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthmān, may Allah be pleased with them. At-Tirmiźī and al-Māwardī cited the majority of the ‘ulamā’. Al-‘Abdarī cited the masses of fuqahā’ other than Ibnu Zubayr and ‘Āisyah. Ibnū al-Munźir cited Mālik and ath-Thawrī. Ibnū al-Munźir transmitted from Ibnu Zubayr, ‘Uthmān bin Abū al-‘Aś the companion, ‘Āisyah, Ishāq Bin Rāhwayh, the stipulation of mustahab for the fast. ‘Āthā’ considered it mustahab during winter and fitr during summer. Qatadah said “La Ba’s” (No issue) with regard to fasting when he is not weakened from making du’ā. The author of al-Bayān transmitted from Yahyā Bin Sa’īd al-Anśārī that he said it is obligatory to fitr in ‘Arafah. Our dalīl is as preceded.

(Section) We have previously mentioned that fitr is mustahab for the pilgrim in ‘Arafah so as to strengthen him for du’ā. This is the ‘ilāl (rationale) of ash-Shāfi’ī and the aśhāb. Ash-Shāfi’ī in the Mukhtaśar said: This is because he is a dhāhin who is a musāfir (traveller). What is intended by dhāhiy here, is one who is smitten by the sun. As a result, he is afflicted with mashaqqah (difficulty) in which given so, he should not fast. It has previously preceded in the chapter of the prayer of Istisqā’ (seeking for rain) that fasting on the day of Istisqā’ is mustahab even though it is the day of du’ā while previously here, is a different. In summary, the difference is that wuqūf is at the end of the day and at the time the effects of fasting is felt on top of the fact that he is a musāfir. On the other hand, Istisqā’ is done at the beginning of the day before the time where the effects of fasting is felt while one is also a muqīm (resident).

(Section) ash-Shafi’ī and the aśhāb said “The most afdhal (virtuous) of du’ā is that on the day of ‘Arafah as per the hadīth. Such was what they mentioned here. We will elaborate with regard to the wuqūf in ‘Arafah.

(Section) al-Baghawī and others said that the most afdhal of days in the year is the day of ‘Arafah. As-Sarakhsī said, with regard to this topic, It is differed with regard to the day of ‘Arafah and Friday, which of these two days is more afdhal? Some of them said: The day of ‘Arafah. This is because the Messenger of Allah, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him, specified that it’s fasting is an expiation for two years and he did not mention anything similar with regard to Friday. Some of them said: Friday is afdhal due to his saying, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him: {The best of day in which the Sun rises is Friday}. This is the saying of as-Sarakhsī. The masyhūr view is the considering that the day of ‘Arafah is afdhal. We will revisit this mas’alah in the section on the wuqūf in ‘Arafah and in the Book of Talāq with regard to the ta’līq of talāq (making divorce contingent) on the most afdhal of days. Amongst the proof for the tarjīh (considering opinion relied upon) of ‘Arafah is that it is an expiation for two years as mentioned previously, and because du’ā in it is most afdhal of all days. Also, it is mentioned in the śahīh of Muslim that the Prophet, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him said { There is not a day, in which Allah frees His Servants from the hell fire more that on the day of ‘Arafah }.

(Section) His Saying, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him, { It is an expiation for the year that elapsed and the year that is coming.} al-Māwardī in the Hāwi said: With regard to it, are two ta’wīls (interpretations) The first is that Allah forgives one’s sins for two years due to the fast. The second is that Allah protects him in these two years and therefore he does not sin in them. As-Sarakhsī said: As for the first year, whatever that transpired in it is forgiven. He said: the ‘ulamā’ differed with regard to the meaning of takfīr (expiation) of the remaining of the year which is coming. Some of them hence said: It’s meaning is when one commits in it a sin, Allah Most High makes his fast of the day of ‘Arafah that has passed as an expiation for it as how He made it an expiation of what is in the elapsed year. Some of them said: It’s meaning is that Allah most High protects him in the coming year from committing anything that requires expiation. The author of al-‘Uddah said, with regard to the takfīr of the other year implies two meanings. (The first) is that it means the year before this. Hence, it refers to the two years that have passed. (The second) is that it refers to the year that has passed and the year that is coming. He said: nothing of it’s likes is found with regard to ‘ibadāt (worships) that expiates a time that is coming, and that is indeed something exclusive to the Messenger of Allah, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him, whom Allah forgave from his past and future sins from the naś of the Noble Quran. Imam al-Haramayn mentions these two implied meanings to the letter. Imam al-Haramayn said: And all that is narrated in the akhbār (reports) related to the takfīr of sins, are in my opinion is understood to mean the śaghāir (minor sins) that are lower than the abominations. This is his saying. It has previously been established in the śahīh narrations that support this. Amongst them is the hadīth of ‘Uthmān, may Allah be pleased with him, who said I heard the Messenger of Allah, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him, said: { There is no Muslim individual, whom when the prescribed prayers is present, he perfects its wudhū’, it’s khushū’, and it’s rukū’ except that it is an expiation for him of what comes before the prayer of sins, as long as he does not commit a major sin, and this applies at all times } narrated by Muslim. And from Abū Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him, said: { The five prayers, and Friday to Friday, is an expiation for what is between them, as long as the major sins are not committed} narrated by Muslim. And from the Prophet, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him, said { The five prayers, Friday to Friday, and Ramadhān to Ramadhān is an expiation for what is between them from sins, when one avoids the major sins} narrated by Muslim. (I say) with regard to the meaning of these hadīths are two ta’wīls (The first) There is expiation of the minor sins with the condition that there are no major sins. If there are kabaīr, there is no expiation, neither for the kabaīr nor the śaghāir. (The second) and it is the aśah and mukhtār (preferred) is that it expiates all the minor sins and the taqdīr (assumption) is that he forgives all of one’s sins except the kabāir. Al-Qādhi ‘Iyādh, may Allah have mercy upon him said : This is mentioned in the hadīths of the forgiveness of the śaghāir, which are lower than the kabāir, which is the maźhab of the ahl as-sunnah, and that the kabāir is forgiven by tawbah (repentance) or by the Rahmah (Mercy) of Allah.

If it is said: the wordings  carries such implications in this hadīth, while other iimplications are carried in terms of significance in the śahīh, then if the wudhū’ expiates, what does the prayer expiates? Further, if the prayer expiates, then what does Fridays and Ramadhān expiates? Similarly, the fast on the day of ‘Arafah expiates sins for two years while the day of ‘Arafah expiates sins for a year. Also when one’s saying of Ãmīn is in harmony with the saying of Ãmīn of the angels, what one has committed before that of sins will be forgiven. The answer,then is as per the answer of the ‘Ulamā’ that every single one of these mentioned is a śālih (good deed) for expiation. If something which it expiates from the śaghāir exists, it expiates it. If nothing from the śaghāir nor the kabāir came to pass, then hasanāt (merits) are written for him, and his station is raised by degrees. This is similar to the prayers of the prophets, the pious and the child. The same applies for their fasts, wudhū’ and other ‘ibādāt (worship). If a kabīrah (abomination) or Kabāir (abominations) came to pass, then we hope that it lightens part of the kabāir. Abu Bakr in the Asyrāf, at the end of the Book of ‘Itikāf and in the chapter of “the invocation of the night of qadr”, with regard to the saying of the Messenger of Allah, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him, : {One who stands on the night of qadr out of faith and hoping for rewards, whatever that has passed from his sins are forgiven}, said: This is a generalized statement, it is hoped that for those who stood for that night, out of faith and desiring rewards, all of its sins, from the kabaīr and the śaghāir are forgiven.

Advertisements