Ash-Shirāzi, may Allah have mercy upon him said in the Muhaźźab:
And one should begin with the Tawāf al-Qudūm, due to what was narrated by ‘Ā’isha, may Allah be pleased with her “that the first matter that the Prophet, Salutations of Allah and His Peace upon him, begins with when he arrives in Makka is that he will make wudhū’ and then make tawāf of the house.” But if one fears the lapse of a maktūba (one of the five prescribed prayers) or a sunna muakkada, he carries it out before the tawāf. This is because it will elapse while the tawāf will not elapse. This tawāf is a sunna because it is a greeting, hence it is not obligatory just like the tahiya al-masjid.
An-Nawāwi, may Allah have mercy upon him, in the commentary of the above said
The Hadīth of ‘Āîsha is narrated by both al-Bukhārī and Muslim. Our aśhāb said: it is muśtahab (Sunna) for the one in ihram, at the beginning of his entrance into Makka that he should neither do ta’rīj (confining the camel that one rides) to rent lodging, put down cloths and change attire, nor do anything else other than tawāf. Rather, part of the group should stay put near their belongings and camels until they made tawāf. Then they return to their camels and belongings and seek lodgings.
Our aśhāb said: when one concludes his supplications at the Ra’s ar-Radm (the highest point in Makkah where the Prophet, Salutations of Allah and Peace be upon him would be able to see the ka’ba and supplicate.), he heads for the masjid and enters from the door of Bani Shaiba as what we mentioned. Then, the first thing he should perform is the Tawāf al-Qudūm. Ash-Shāfi’ī and the aśhāb made an exception for a beautiful woman and a sharīfa (woman of great dignity) who is not a barza (one who does not veil her face) from men. They said: it is mustahab for her to delay her tawāf and entering the masjid to the night. This is because this more concealed for her and safer for her and others from fitna (tribulation).
Allah knows best.
Ash-Shāfi’ī and the aśhāb said: when one enters the masjid, he should not be busied by the tahiya prayer or others. Rather, he should begin with the mentioned tawāf. He thus heads for the hajar al-aswad, and begins the Tawāf al-Qudūm which is the greetings of the Masjid al-Harām.
Our aśhāb said: Beginning with the Tawāf al-Qudūm is mustahab for all those entering whether or not he is in ihram unless he fears missing the prescribed prayers (5 daily prayers), the rawātib prayers, the Sunna prayers which are muakkada, missing the prescribed prayers in congregation even if there is ample time or there is outstanding missed prescribed prayers due for him, he should undoubtedly prioritize all these over the Tawāf. And if he enters the masjid, and people are obstructed from doing tawāf, he should pray the tahiya prayers.
Know that there is no Tawāf al-Qudūm in ‘umra. On the contrary, there is only one Tawāf called Tawāf al-Fardh (Obligatory Circumbulation) or Tawāf at-Rukn (Mandatory Circumbulation). As for hajj, there are three Tawāfs. They are the Tawāf al-Qudūm, the Tawāf al-Ifādha and the Tawāf al-Wadā’. There is a fourth Tawāf, other than the ones we mentioned which is prescribed in the shari’a which are the voluntary Tawāfs. It is without doubt, that one is enjoined to increase the number of such Tawāfs.
Names of the Various Tawāfs
As for the Tawāf al-Qudūm, there are five names for it. They are Tawāf al-Qudūm, al-Qādim, al-Wurūd, al-Wārid and the Tawāf at-Tahiya (Greeting Circumbulation). As for the Tawāf al-Ifādha, there are also five names for it. They are: Tawāf al-Ifādha, Tawāf az-Ziyāra, Tawāf al-Fardh, Tawāf ar-Rukn and Tawāf aś-Śadr. As for the Tawāf al-Wadā’, it is also called Tawāf aś-Śadr. The Tawāf al-Qudūm is placed at the beginning of his qudūm (i.e. Arrival). The place of Tawāf al-Ifādha is after the wuqūf in ‘ārafa and the middle of the night of nahr. The place of Tawāf al-Wadā’ is when one wishes to safr (depart) from Makka after the completion of all of his manāsik (hajj rites).
Know that the Tawāf al-Ifādha is a rukn (pillar) in which the hajj is not valid unless it is performed. As for the Tawāf al-Wadā’, there are two qauls (opinions of ash-Shāfi’ī). The aśah (relied upon) is that it is wājib (compulsory). The second is that it is sunna, and if one left it, one should spill the dam. If we say that it is wājib then the dam is wājib but if we were to say that it is sunna, then the dam is sunna. As for the Tawāf al-Qudūm, then it is sunna, not wājib. If one left it, then his hajj is śahīh (sound) and there is nothing required of him to do.as expiation. However, he has indeed missed a fadhīla (meritorious deed). This is the mazhab (relied upon) and there is a naś from ash-Shāfi’ī, affirmed by both the ‘Irāqī and Khurasānī jumhūrs. A group from the Khurāsānīs and others mentioned of it to be obligatory, and this is considered to be a weak and shāź (strange) wajh (opinion of the aśhab). Amongst those who are of this opinion state that dam is compulsory for those who left it. This is transmitted by the author of at-Taqrīb, ad-Dārimi, al-Qādhī Abū Tayyīb at the end of the section on the features of hajj from his Ta’līq, Abū ‘Ālī as-Sinjī, al-Imām al-Haramain, the author of al-Bayan and others.
Delaying Tawāf al-Qudūm
We have previously mentioned that it is enjoined for the Tawāf al-Qudūm to be performed at the beginning of his arrival. If he delays it, then with regard to it’s expiry are two wajhs. Both of them were transmitted by Imam al-Haramain as it is similar to the tahiya al- masjid.
Tawāf al-Qudūm in Hajj
Know that the Tawāf al-Qudūm is materialized with regard to the one who performs ifrad hajj, and the one who performs qiran hajj, when either of them had made ihrām from other than Makka and enters Makka before performing the wuqūf in ‘arafa. As for the Makkī (a person staying in Makka), the Tawāf al-Qudūm does not materialize for him since there is no qudūm (arrival) for him. As for the one who is in ihrām of ‘umra, the Tawāf al-Qudūm does not materialize for him, rather when he makes the Tawāf of ‘umra, it suffices both Tawāfs. This Tawāf encompasses the qudūm as how the prescribed prayers suffices for both that obligatory prayer and the tahiya al-masjid. Our aśhāb said: to the extend that if the one performing ‘umra made tawāf with the intention of tawāf al-qudūm, it drops the obligation of tawāf al-‘umra, just as how for one who is obligated to perform the hajj al-Islām made ihrām with a voluntary hajj instead, then indeed it drops the obligation of hajj al-Islām.
As for the one who made ihrām as one doing ifrād, or qiran and he does not enter Makkah except after wuqūf, then there is no tawāf al-qudūm for him. Rather, the tawāf that he performs after wuqūf is the tawāf al-ifādha. If he intends by it the tawāf al-qudūm, it encompasses the tawāf al-ifādha if the time has entered, which is after the middle of the night of nahr. This is as what we mentioned with regard to the one performing ‘umra if he intends for it the tawāf al-qudūm.
And Allah knows best.
Entering Makka for Various Reasons
Our aśhāb said: the tawāf al-qudūm is sunna for all those who arrives in Makka, whether or not for hajj, business, visiting or others from those entering in ihrām for ‘umra or hajj after wuqūf as above.