Imam ash-Shiraźi, may Allah have mercy upon him said in the Muhaźźab:

It is not offensive on Friday at the time of istiwā’ for those attending the Friday Prayers due to what is narrated by Abū Sa’īd, may Allah be pleased with him. { that the Prophet, Allah’s Salutation and Peace upon him prohibited prayers at midday until the sun declines except on Friday }. This is because there is mashaqqa (difficulty) for one due to the large number of people exiting to be watchful of the sun and sleep will overcome them if they sit. Hence, prayer is ma’fu (forgiven). If one doesn’t attend the prayer, then there are two wajh (opinions of the ashāb) with regard to this. One of it is it is permissible due to a khabar (narration). Secondly, there is no mashaqqa with regard to keeping watch of the sun.

Commentary

Imam an-Nawawi, may Allah have mercy upon him, in his commentary of the above said:

The Hadīth

This hadīth is dha’īf (weak) narrated by Abū Daud from a narration of Abū Qatada. He said it is mursal. Al-Baihaqi mentions it from a narration of Abū Qatada, Abū Sa’īd, Abū Huraira, ‘Amr Bin ‘Abasa and Ibn ‘Umar. He considered all the chains to be dha’īf. And then he said: The relied upon is that the Prophet, Allah’s Salutation and Peace upon him made it mustahab for one to go for Friday Prayers early in the morning. Then, he wanted to arouse the desire for him to pray until the exiting of the Imam without any singling out or exceptions.

The Ruling

As for the ruling of the matter, there are many virtues of Friday in disaffirming the offensiveness of prayer. With regard to this, there are several wajhs: One of it is that prayer is permissible without any offensiveness throughout the day for everyone. The second wajh which is the aśah (relied upon) is that it is permissible for everyone specifically during the istiwā’ (crossing meridian) of the sun. The third wajh is that it is only permissible for those who attend the Friday prayers and not anyone else. Al-Qādhi Abu Thayyib considers this opinion to be śahīh. The fourth wajh is that it is permissible for one attending the Friday Prayers while nu’ās (sleepiness) overcomes him. The fifth wajh is that it is permissible for one attending Friday prayers early in the morning while nu’ās overcomes him. It’s proofs are as what is understood from what is mentioned by the author and al-Baihaqi. Abū Hanīfa said: It is not permissible as per the other days. And Allah knows best.

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